Proton-gated channels of the ASIC family are widely distributed in central neurons, suggesting their role in common neurophysiological functions. They are involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity; however, the exact function of these channels remains unclear. One problem is that acidification of the synaptic cleft due to the acidic content of synaptic vesicles has opposite effects on ionotropic glutamate receptors and ASICs. Thus, the pH values required to activate ASICs strongly inhibit AMPA receptors and almost completely inhibit NMDA receptors. This, in turn, suggests that ASICs can provide compensation for post-synaptic responses in the case of significant acidifications. We tested this hypothesis by patch-clamp recordings of rat brain neuron responses to acidifications and glutamate receptor agonists at different pH values. Hippocampal pyramidal neurons have much lower ASICs than glutamate receptor responses, whereas striatal interneurons show the opposite ratio. Cortical pyramidal neurons and hippocampal interneurons show similar amplitudes in their responses to acidification and glutamate. Consequently, the total response to glutamate agonists at different pH levels remains rather stable up to pH 6.2. Besides these pH effects, the relationship between the responses mediated by glutamate receptors and ASICs depends on the presence of Mg2+ and the membrane voltage. Together, these factors create a complex picture that provides a framework for understanding the role of ASICs in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity.