Ocular drug delivery is a challenging field due to the unique anatomical and physiological barriers of the eye. Biodegradable polymers have emerged as promising tools for efficient and controlled drug delivery in ocular diseases. This review provides an overview of biodegradable polymer-based drug-delivery systems for ocular diseases with emphasis on the potential for biodegradable polymers to overcome the limitations of conventional methods, allowing for sustained drug release, improved bioavailability, and targeted therapy. Natural and synthetic polymers are both discussed, highlighting their biodegradability and biocompatibility. Various formulation strategies, such as nanoparticles, hydrogels, and microemulsions, among others, are investigated, detailing preparation methods, drug encapsulation, and clinical applications. The focus is on anterior and posterior segment drug delivery, covering glaucoma, corneal disorders, ocular inflammation, retinal diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. Safety considerations, such as biocompatibility evaluations, in vivo toxicity studies, and clinical safety, are addressed. Future perspectives encompass advancements, regulatory considerations, and clinical translation challenges. In conclusion, biodegradable polymers offer potential for efficient and targeted ocular drug delivery, improving therapeutic outcomes while reducing side effects. Further research is needed to optimize formulation strategies and address regulatory requirements for successful clinical implementation.