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RSS FeedsCytosolic, but not matrix, calcium is essential for adjustment of mitochondrial pyruvate supply [Molecular Bases of Disease] (Journal of Biological Chemistry)

 
 

4 april 2020 03:00:17

 
Cytosolic, but not matrix, calcium is essential for adjustment of mitochondrial pyruvate supply [Molecular Bases of Disease] (Journal of Biological Chemistry)
 


Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and cellular workload are tightly balanced by the key cellular regulator, calcium (Ca2+). Current models assume that cytosolic Ca2+ regulates workload and that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake precedes activation of matrix dehydrogenases, thereby matching OXPHOS substrate supply to ATP demand. Surprisingly, knockout (KO) of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) in mice results in only minimal phenotypic changes and does not alter OXPHOS. This implies that adaptive activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases by intramitochondrial Ca2+ cannot be the exclusive mechanism for OXPHOS control. We hypothesized that cytosolic Ca2+, but not mitochondrial matrix Ca2+, may adapt OXPHOS to workload by adjusting the rate of pyruvate supply from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Here, we studied the role of malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS)-dependent substrate supply in OXPHOS responses to changing Ca2+ concentrations in isolated brain and heart mitochondria, synaptosomes, fibroblasts, and thymocytes from WT and MCU KO mice and the isolated working rat heart. Our results indicate that extramitochondrial Ca2+ controls up to 85% of maximal pyruvate-driven OXPHOS rates, mediated by the activity of the complete MAS, and that intramitochondrial Ca2+ accounts for the remaining 15%. Of note, the complete MAS, as applied here, included besides its classical NADH oxidation reaction the generation of cytosolic pyruvate. Part of this largely neglected mechanism has previously been described as the `mitochondrial gas pedal.` Its implementation into OXPHOS control models integrates seemingly contradictory results and warrants a critical reappraisal of metabolic control mechanisms in health and disease.


 
19 viewsCategory: Biochemistry
 
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