IJERPH, Vol. 18, Pages 12378: Associations of Dietary Patterns and Risk of Hypertension in Southwest China: A Prospective Cohort Study (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Empirical data on the association between diet and incident hypertension in Southwest China is lacking. We examined the associations between various dietary patterns and the risk of incident hypertension in this prospective population cohort of Southwest China. A total of 5442 eligible adults were included from Guizhou Province, China, since 2010. Dietary information was obtained using face-to-face interviews with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were characterized using factor analysis. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for the associations between various dietary patterns and incident hypertension risk using a Cox proportional hazard model. Until 2020, a total of 1177 new hypertension cases were identified during an average follow-up of 6.97 years. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, a low intake of the junk food pattern was significantly associated with the reducing risk of incident hypertension (HR: 0.772, 95% CI: 0.671, 0.887) and a high intake of the vegetable–grain pattern statistically lowered the risk of incident hypertension (HR: 0.774, 95% CI: 0.669, 0.894) compared with the medium intake of such patterns. Higher adherence to the vegetable–grain pattern and lower adherence to the junk food pattern significantly lowered the hypertension incidence among the population in Southwest China. Those findings suggested healthy diet guidelines should be developed for the prevention of hypertension.