The present study investigated the melanogenic effects of imperatorin and isoimperatorin and the underlying mechanisms of imperatorin using a mouse melanoma B16F10 model. Interestingly, treatment with 25 μM of either imperatorin or isoimperatorin, despite their structural differences, did not produce differences in melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity. Imperatorin also activated the expression of melanogenic enzymes, such as tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related proteins TYRP-1 and TYRP-2. Mechanistically, imperatorin increases melanin synthesis through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA)/cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent upregulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), which is a key transcription factor in melanogenesis. Furthermore, imperatorin exerted melanogenic effects by downregulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and upregulating phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthesis kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Moreover, imperatorin increased the content of β-catenin in the cell cytoplasm and nucleus by reducing the content of phosphorylated β-catenin (p-β-catenin). Finally, we tested the potential of imperatorin in topical application through primary human skin irritation tests. These tests were performed on the normal skin (upper back) of 31 volunteers to determine whether 25 or 50 µM of imperatorin had irritation or sensitization potential. During these tests, imperatorin did not induce any adverse reactions. Taken together, these findings suggest that the regulation of melanogenesis by imperatorin can be mediated by signaling pathways involving PKA/CREB, ERK, AKT, and GSK3β/β-catenin and that imperatorin could prevent the pathogenesis of pigmentation diseases when used as a topical agent.