Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders with different etiologies, pathogeneses and clinical pictures, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to abnormal insulin secretion or action. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents, accounting for about 90% of diabetes in the population under the age of 18. The etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multifactorial. The disease occurs as a result of the interaction of three factors: genetic predisposition, environmental factors and the immune response. Research in recent years has focused on the involvement of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of type I diabetes. The goals of treating type 1 diabetes include maintaining blood-glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of EBV infection on the activation of selected immune cells, fructosamine levels and HbA1c levels in children with type I diabetes. Based on our study, we found a lower percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes with expression of the CD69 molecule in patients with anti-VCA antibodies in the IgG class, and a lower percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes with expression of the CD25+ molecule in patients with anti-EBNA-1 antibodies in the IgG class, which may indicate limited control of the immune system during EBV infection in patients. There was a lower percentage of CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes secreting IL-4 in the study group, indicating that a deficiency in IL-4 production may be related to the development of type 1 diabetes. There was an increase in the percentage of CD4+CD3+IL-10 lymphocytes in the study group with anti-VCA antibodies present in the IgG class and anti-EBNA-1 antibodies in the IgG class compared to the patients without antibodies. In addition, there was a significant increase in fructosamine levels and higher glycated hemoglobin levels in the study group with antibodies to EBV antigens. In addition, an increase in the percentage of T lymphocytes with a CD4+CD3+IL-17+ phenotype in the patients with anti-VCA IgG antibodies was confirmed, and higher HbA1c levels may suggest that EBV infection is accompanied by an increase in IL-17 secretion.