The poor survival of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is due to its aggressive behavior, large heterogeneity, and high risk of recurrence. A comprehensive molecular investigation of this type of breast cancer using high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods may help to elucidate its potential progression and discover biomarkers related to patient survival. In this review, the NGS applications in TNBC research are described. Many NGS studies point to TP53 mutations, immunocheckpoint response genes, and aberrations in the PIK3CA and DNA repair pathways as recurrent pathogenic alterations in TNBC. Beyond their diagnostic and predictive/prognostic value, these findings suggest potential personalized treatments in PD -L1-positive TNBC or in TNBC with a homologous recombination deficit. Moreover, the comprehensive sequencing of large genomes with NGS has enabled the identification of novel markers with clinical value in TNBC, such as AURKA, MYC, and JARID2 mutations. In addition, NGS investigations to explore ethnicity-specific alterations have pointed to EZH2 overexpression, BRCA1 alterations, and a BRCA2-delaAAGA mutation as possible molecular signatures of African and African American TNBC. Finally, the development of long-read sequencing methods and their combination with optimized short-read techniques promise to improve the efficiency of NGS approaches for future massive clinical use.