Gastric cancer (GC) typically carries a poor prognosis as it is often diagnosed at a late stage. Altered metabolism has been found to impact cancer outcomes and affect patients’ quality of life, and the role of metabolites in gastric cancer prognosis has not been sufficiently understood. We aimed to establish a prognostic prediction model for GC patients based on a metabolism-associated signature and identify the unique role of metabolites in the prognosis of GC. Thus, we conducted untargeted metabolomics to detect the plasma metabolites of 218 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and explored the metabolites related to the survival of patients with gastric cancer. Firstly, we divided patients into two groups based on the cutoff value of the abundance of each of the 60 metabolites and compared the differences using Kaplan–Meier (K-M) survival analysis. As a result, 23 metabolites associated with gastric cancer survival were identified. To establish a risk score model, we performed LASSO regression and Cox regression analysis on the 60 metabolites and identified 8 metabolites as an independent prognostic factor. Furthermore, a nomogram incorporating clinical parameters and the metabolic signature was constructed to help individualize outcome predictions. The results of the ROC curve and nomogram plot showed good predictive performance of metabolic risk features. Finally, we performed pathway analysis on the 24 metabolites identified in the two parts, and the results indicated that purine metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism play important roles in gastric cancer prognosis. Our study highlights the important role of metabolites in the progression of gastric cancer and newly identified metabolites could be potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for gastric cancer patients.