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14 august 2023 11:21:31

Energies, Vol. 16, Pages 5972: An Overview of Supervised Machine Learning Approaches for Applications in Active Distribution Networks (Energies)

Distribution grids must be regularly updated to meet the global electricity demand. Some of these updates result in fundamental changes to the structure of the grid network. Some recent changes include two-way communication infrastructure, the rapid development of distributed generations (DGs) in different forms, and the installation of smart measurement tools. In addition to other changes, these lead to distribution grid modifications, allowing more advanced features. Even though these advanced technologies enhance distribution grid performance, the operation, management, and control of active distribution networks (ADNs) have become more complicated. For example, distribution system state estimation (DSSE) calculations have been introduced as a tool to estimate the performance of distribution grids. These DSSE computations are highly dependent on data obtained from measurement devices in distribution grids. However, sufficient measurement devices are not available in ADNs due to economic constraints and various configurations of distribution grids. Thus, the modeling of pseudo-measurements using conventional and machine learning techniques from historical information in distribution grids is applied to address the lack of real measurements in ADNs. Different types of measurements (real, pseudo, and virtual measurements), alongside network parameters, are fed into model-based or data-based DSSE approaches to estimate the state variables of the distribution grid. The results obtained through DSSE should be sufficiently accurate for the appropriate management and overall performance evaluation of a distribution grid in a control center. However, distribution grids are prone to different cyberattacks, which can endanger their safe operation. One particular type of cyberattack is known as a false data injection attack (FDIA) on measurement data. Attackers try to inject false data into the measurements of nodes to falsify DSSE results. The FDIA can sometimes bypass poor traditional data-detection processes. If FDIAs cannot be identified successfully, the distribution grid’s performance is degraded significantly. Currently, different machine learning applications are applied widely to model pseudo-measurements, calculate DSSE variables, and identify FDIAs on measurement data to achieve the desired distribution grid operation and performance. In this study, we present a comprehensive review investigating the use of supervised machine learning (SML) in distribution grids to enhance and improve the operation and performance of advanced distribution grids according to three perspectives: (1) pseudo-measurement generation (via short-term load forecasting); (2) DSSE calculation; and (3) FDIA detection on measurement data. This review demonstrates the importance of SML in the management of ADN operation.

61 viewsCategory: Biophysics, Biotechnology, Physics
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