The endurance of medium- and high-voltage electrical insulation is a key reliability element in a broad spectrum of applications that cover transmission and distribution levels, the transportation segment, the industrial environment, and power electronics-based energy-conversion systems. The high electric-field stress and high-frequency switching phenomena as well as the impact of environmental conditions lead to the occurrence of partial discharges (PD) and the subsequent deterioration of electrical insulation. Partial discharges usually occur inside solid insulation materials in tiny voids that may either be located adjacent to the electrodes or in the bulk of dielectric material. This effect refers to both AC and DC systems; however, AC voltage is usually much more intensive as compared to DC voltage. This paper describes a novel combined approach based on surface-resistance and potential mapping to reveal the effects of internal processes and the deterioration of insulating material due to the actions of partial discharges. To realize the research objective, the following two-step approach was proposed. Multi-point resistance mapping enables us to identify the spots of discharge channels, manifesting a-few-orders-of-magnitude-lower surface resistance as compared to untreated areas. In addition, surface-potential mapping that was stimulated by corona-charge deposition reflects quasi-equipotential clusters and the related polarity-dependent dynamics of charge decay. A high spatial and temporal resolution allows for the precise mapping and tracing of decay patterns. Experiments were carried out on polyethylene (PE) and Nomex specimens that contained embedded voids. During PD events, the effective discharge areas are identified along with the memory effects that originate from the accumulation of surface charges. Long-term aging processes may drive the formation of channels that are initiated from the deteriorated micro clusters, in turn, penetrating the bulk isolation. The presented methodology and experimental results extend the insight into PD mechanisms and internal surface processes.